Retention and relapse form one of the most important components of successful orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic relapse has remained one of the persistent problems in long-term success of comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Clinical research in contemporary orthodontic scenario has determined the changes taking place several years after orthodontic treatment and its influencing factors. Factors, including growth, periodontium, age, third molars, tooth dimensions, etc., have been held responsible for posttreatment relapse. Many treatment procedures have been devised to ensure stability and prevent or at least avoid posttreatment changes so as to reduce relapse. A proper understanding of the changes and various factors affecting retention and relapse process is important. Newer orthodontic treatment modalities, though might provide an ideal end treatment result, will fail to produce a significant impact for the patient if orthodontic retention and relapse is not considered.
Grieve GW. The stability of the treated denture. Am J Orthod Oral Surg 1944;30(4):171–195. DOI: 10.1016/S0096-6347(44)90226-7.
Tweed CH. Indications for the extraction of teeth in orthodontic procedure. Am J Orthod Oral Surg 1944;30(8):405–428. PMID: 21024940.
Rogers AP. Making facial muscles our allies in treatment and retention. Dental Cosmos 1922;64(7):711–730. Available from: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/d/dencos?page=home.
Rami Reddy MS, Suma S, Chandrasekhar BR, Chaukse A. Retention appliances – a review. Int J Dent Clin 2010;2(3):31–36. DOI:10.13005/bpj/749.
Edwards JG. A long-term prospective evaluation of the circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy in alleviating orthodontic relapse. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1988;93(5):380–387. DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(88)90096-0.
Azami N, Chen PJ, Mehta S, Kalajzic Z, Dutra EH, Nanda R, et al. Raloxifene administration enhances retention in an orthodontic relapse model. Eur J Orthod 2020;42(4):371–377. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjaa008.
Liu Y, Zhang T, Zhang C, Jin SS, Yang RL, Wang XD, et al. Aspirin blocks orthodontic relapse via inhibition of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Dent Res 2017;96(5):586–594. DOI: 10.1177/0022034516685527.
Kim TW, Yoshida Y, Yokoya K, Sasaki T. An ultrastructural study of the effects of bisphosphonate administration on osteoclastic bone resorption during relapse of experimentally moved rat molars. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999;115(6):645–653. DOI: 10.1016/s0889-5406(99)70290-8.
Zhao N, Lin J, Kanzaki H, Ni J. Local osteoprotegerin gene transfer inhibits relapse of orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;141(1):30–40. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.06.035.
Han G, Chen Y, Hou J, Liu C, Chen C, Zhuang J, et al. Effects of simvastatin on relapse and remodeling of periodontal tissues after tooth movement in rats. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010;138(5):550. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.04.026.
Hirate Y, Yamaguchi M, Kasai K. Effects of relaxin on relapse and periodontal tissue remodeling after experimental tooth movement in rats. Connect Tissue Res 2012;53(3):207–219. DOI: 10.3109/03008207.2011.628060.
Kravitz ND, Grauer D, Schumacher P, Jo YM. Memotain: a CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainer. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017;151(4):812–815. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.11.021.
Węgrodzka E, Kornatowska K, Pandis N, Fudalej PS. A comparative assessment of failures and periodontal health between 2 mandibular lingual retainers in orthodontic patients. A 2-year follow-up, single practice-based randomized trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021;160(4):494–502. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2021.02.015.
Littlewood SJ, Kandasamy S, Huang G. Retention and relapse in clinical practice. Aust Dent J 2017;62:51. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12475.
Loli D. Retention after orthodontic treatments: a systematic review. Webmed Central Orthodontics 2017;8(11):WMC005406.