Journal of Scientific Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Estimation of Salivary pH levels in Depression: An Observational Study

Umamaheswari Giri, V Lakshman Leelaram, Vidyalakshmi Santhanam, Suganya Rajaram

Keywords : Autonomic nervous system, Depression, Neurophysiology, Norepinephrine, Salivary pH

Citation Information : Giri U, Leelaram VL, Santhanam V, Rajaram S. Estimation of Salivary pH levels in Depression: An Observational Study. 2022; 12 (1):8-10.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-1018

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Introduction: Depression is a major problem of mental illness that influences people globally everywhere. Chronic depression could increase the activity of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenaline (HPA) axis and sympathetic–adreno–medullary (SAM) axis, and system makes the depressive individuals more amenability to various systemic diseases. Depressive disorder could influence the autonomic nervous system that has effect on the salivary gland in which the salivary secretion is controlled by the parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. Likewise salivary pH changes may invariably affect the oral health. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the salivary pH levels in depression before and after antidepressant therapy. Materials and methods: This study includes 40 subjects/groups, and group I (control), group IIA, and group II B (depressive individual's pre- and post-medication of antidepressant medication). Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used to assess the depression. The whole saliva was collected in a sterile container by the spitting method of Navazesh, and Salivary pH level was measured using pH meter. Results: Parametric t-test was used for statistical analysis and thus showing statistically insignificant result for salivary.

  1. Vineetha R, Pai KM, Vengal M, Gopalakrishna K, Narayanakurup D. Usefulness of salivary alpha amylase as a biomarker of chronic stress and stress related oral mucosal changes - a pilot study. J Clin Exp Dent 2014; 6(2):e132–137. DOI: 10.4317/jced.51355.
  2. Vreeburg SA, Hoogendijk WJG, Derijk RH, Dyck R Van, Smit JH, Zitman FG, et al. Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013; 38(9):1494–1502. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.017.
  3. Löfgren CD, Wickström C, Sonesson M, Lagunas PT, Christersson C. A systematic review of methods to diagnose oral dryness and salivary gland function. BMC Oral Health 2012;12(1):29. PMID: 22870895.
  4. Daryani D, Gopakumar R. Xerostomia, its association with oral manifestation and ocular involvement: A clinical and biochemical study. JIAOMR 2011;23(4):513–517. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10011- 1212.
  5. Tiwana M, Uppal B, Sachdeva J, Talole S, Mahajan M, Koshy G, et al. Whole saliva physico biochemical changes and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients following conventional radiation therapy: A prospective longitudinal study. Indian J Cancer 2011;48 (3):289. DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.84918.
  6. Vibhakar PA, Patankar SR, Yadav RM, Vibbakar PA. Salivary total protein levels and their correlation to dental caries. Int J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2013;4(3):13–16. Corpus ID: 56080649.
  7. Szabadi E, Tavernor S. Hypo- and hyper-salivation induced by psychoactive drugs. CNS Drugs 1999;11(6):449–466. DOI: 10.2165/00023210-199911060-00004.
  8. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1983;67(6):361–370. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600- 0447.1983.tb09716.x.
  9. Navazesh M. Methods for collecting saliva. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 694:72–77. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb18343.x.
  10. Nanci A. Ten Cate's Oral Histology: Development, Structure and Function, 6th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby; 2003:310–321.
  11. Morse DR, Schacterle GR, Furst ML, Esposito JV, Zaydenburg M. Stress, relaxation and saliva: relationship to dental caries and its prevention with a literature review. Ann Dent 1983;42:47–54. Corpus ID: 32298736.
  12. Sandin B, Chorot P. Changes in skin, salivary, and urinary pH as indicators of anxiety level in humans. Psychophysiology 1985;22: 226–230. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1985.tb01591.x.
  13. Dayan NA. Sodium/potassium electrolyte concentrations in saliva of selected mentally ill patients. Philippine J Psychol 1970;3(1): 36–44.
  14. Cohen M, Khalaila R. Saliva pH as a biomarker of exam stress and a predictor of exam performance. J Psychosom Res 2014;77(5):420–425. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.07.003.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.