Background and aim: Down syndrome, also denominated as trisomy 21, is a genetic alteration in which the affected individual carries an extra chromosome 21. Down syndrome patients have specific orofacial features such as mouth breathing, open bite, macroglossia, hypodontia, microdontia, anodontia, fissured tongue, malocclusion, low level of dental caries, poor oral hygiene, delayed eruption, small maxilla, retained deciduous teeth. The present review is aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in Down syndrome individuals.
Materials and methods: The primary focus of the search was review articles, case report and observational studies explaining the common dental anomalies affecting Down syndrome individuals.
Results: One review article, two case reports and twelve observational studies were included to this review. Prevalence of overall dental anomalies in Down syndrome individuals is about 50.47–95.52% and individual percentage of dental anomalies, taurodontism 9.52–85.71%; anodontia 34.69%; delayed eruption 2.04%; conic teeth 14.28%; microdontia 2.04–16.19%; fusion 2.04%; hypodontia 16.19–62%; fissured tongue 78%; retained teeth 10.17%; and teeth agenesis 30–81% were noticed in Down syndrome individuals.
Conclusion: Individuals with Down syndrome exhibit high prevalence of dental anomalies compared to normal individuals. The most prevalent dental anomalies among these individuals were taurodontism, anodontia, hypodontia, fissured tongue and teeth agenesis. These outcomes reinforce that dental care should be directed to prevent and/or control problems and to improve oral hygiene status of Down syndrome individuals.
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