Journal of Scientific Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Cytokines in Periodontal Health & Disease

Sreedevi M, Anitha K.

Keywords : Cytokines, periodontal disease, interleukins, chemokines, growthfactors, cytokine therapy

Citation Information : M S, K. A. Cytokines in Periodontal Health & Disease. 2011; 1 (1):15-24.

DOI: 10.5005/jsd-1-1-15

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-08-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).


Destruction of gingival and periodontal tissue is mediated by a very large degree of host cells following stimulation by locally produced cytokines. These cytokines act as the initial mediators of the cellular component of inflammation. It has now been shown that a range of bacterial molecules is able to induce human cells to produce a variety Of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. It is clear that cytokines play a key role in the immune system, in hematopoiesis, and in immunoregulation. They also play a role in the pathophysiology, both in producing tissue destruction as well as in healing. Host cells such as keratinocytess fibroblasts, endothelial cells and tissue monocytes respond to certain bacterial proteins and lipopolysaccharides by generating primary proinflammatory cytokines. Their excessive production in chronic inflammation may have pathologic consequences in diseases su ch as periodontitis. Cytoki nes are a significant and integral part of the host response to periodontal infection. Additionally, these molecules are important as physiologic mediators in the periodontium, serving in both normal processes and as pathogenic mediators. A therapeutic goal in clinical periodontics can be aimed at maintaining a physiological role for the cytokines while recognizing that their overproduction results in pathologic changes.

PDF Share
  1. Kenneth T, Miyasaki, Russell J, Nisengard, Susan Kinder Haake. Immunity and inflammation: Basic concepts. In: Newman, Takei & Carranza (eds): Carranza's Clinical Periodontology. 9th edition. W.B. Saunders Company; 2003:118 19.
  2. P.R. Garant (ed). Gingiva: basic science correlations. In: Oral cells and tissues. Quintessence publishing Co, 40.
  3. H. Okada, S. Murakami. Cytokine expression in periodontal health and disease. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1998; 9(3): 248 66.
  4. Kjeldsen M, Helmstrup P, Ben dtzen K. Marginal Periodontitis and Cytokines: A Review of literature, J Periodontol 1993; 64: 1013-22.
  5. McFarlane C, Meikle M. Interleukin-2, interleukin 2 receptor and interleukin 4 levels are elevated in the sera Of patients with periodofital disease. J Periodont Res 1991;26:402-08.
  6. Jandinski JJ, Stashenko P, Feder LS, et al. Localization Of interleukin I B in human periodontal tissue. J Periodontol 1991; 62:36 43.
  7. Hönig J, Rordorf-Adam C, Siegmund C, Wiedemann W, Erard F. Increased interleukin I beta (IL I β) concentration in gingival tissue From periodöntitis patients. J Pe
  8. Haffajee A, Socransky SS, Goodson J. Comparison of different data analyses for detecting changes in attachment level. J Clin Periodontol 1983; 10:298-10.
  9. Stashenko P, Fujiyoshi P, Obernesser MS, Prostak L, Haffajee AD, Socransky SS. Levels of interleukin 113 in tissue from sites of active periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 1991; 18:548-54.
  10. Stashenko P, Jandinski J, Fujiyoshi P, Rynar J, Socransky SS. Tissue levels of bone resorptive cytokines in periodontal disease. J Periodontol 1991; 62:504 09.
  11. Masada MP, Persson R, Kenney JS, Lee S W, Page RC, Allison AC. Measurement of interleukin-lu and-IB in gingival crevicular fluid: Implications for the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. J Periodont Res 1990; 25:156-63.
  12. Offenbacher S, Pinnix K, Odle B. The measurement of tumor necrosis factor in inflamed periodon tal tissue. J Dent Res 1988; 67 (Spec. Issue):346(Abstr. 156).
  13. Bartold PM, Haynes DR. Interleukin 6 production by human gingival fibroblasts. J Periodönt Res 1991; 26:339 45.
  14. Charon J, Luger TA, Mergenhagen SE, Oppenheim JJ. Increased thymocyte-activating factor in human gingival fluid during gingival inflammation. Infect Immun 1982; 38:1190 95.
  15. Mergenhagen SE. Thymocyte activating factor(s) in human gingival fluids. J Dent Res 1984; 63:461 64.
  16. Luger TA, Stadler BM, Luger BM, et al. Murine epidermal cell derived thymocyte-activating factor resembles murine interleukin 1. J Immunol 1982; 128:2147 52.
  17. Kabashima H, Maeda K, Iwamoto Y, et al. Partial characterization of an interleukin-I-like factor in human gingival crevicular fluid from patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease, Infect Immun 1989; 58:2621 27.
  18. Lord pew, Wilmoth LMG, Mizel SB, McCall CE. Expression of interleukin-la and b genes by human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Clin Invest 1991; 87:1312-21.
  19. Auron PE, Warner SIC, Webb AC, et al. Studies on the molecular nature of human interleukin 1. J Immunol 1987; 13811447-56.
  20. Rossomando EF, Kennedy JE, Hadjimichael J. Tumour necrosis factor alpha in gingival crevicular fluid as a possible indicator of periodontal dis iol 1990; 35:431-34.
  21. Geivelis M. Interleukin-6 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. J Periodontol 1990; 61:773 74.
  22. Gemell E, Marshal RI and Seymour GJ. Cytokines and prostaglandins in immune homeostasis and tissue destruction in periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 1997;14:112 43.
  23. Gemell E, Seymour Gel. Immunorcgulatory control of Th2 cytokine profiles in periodontal disease. Periodontal 2000 2004;35:21 41.
  24. Gregory J. Seymour, John J. Taylor. Shouts and whispers: an introduction to immunoregulation in periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 2004; 35: 9 13.
  25. Moscatelli D, Presta M, Joseph-Silverstein J, Rifkin DB. Both normal and tumor cells produce basic fibroblast growth factors. J Cell Physiol 1986; 129:273-76.
  26. Balkwill FR, Burke F. The cytokine network. Immunnol Today 1989; 9:299-04.
  27. Nozaki T, Kusumoto Y, Kitamura M, Murakami S, Okada H. Differential mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in inflamed gingival tissue. J Dent Res 1997; 76:30
  28. Shapira L, Wilensky A, Kinane DF. Effect of genetic variability on the inflammatory response to periodontal infection. J Clin Periodontol 2005;32(Suppl.6):72:86.
  29. S a-Wador Narcs. The genetic relationship to periodontal disease. Periodontology 2000 2003; 32:36 49.
  30. D.T. Graves and D. Cohran. The contribution of lilterleukin-l and tumor necrosis factor to periodontal tissue destruction. J Periodontol 2003;74:391 01.
  31. Graves B, Oskoui M, Volenjnikova S. TNF modulates fibroblast apoptosis, PMN recruitment, and osteoclast formation in response to P. gingivalis infection. J Dent Res 2001; 80:1875-79.
  32. Takashiba S, Naruishi K, Murayama Y. perspective of cytokine regulation for periodontal treatment: fibroblast biology. J Periodontol 2003; 74: 103 10.
  33. Graves DT, Delima AJ, Assuma R, Amar S, Oates T, Cochran D. Interleukin-I and TNT? antagonists inhibit the progression of inflammatory cell infiltration toward alveolar bone in experimental periodontitis. J Periodontol 1998; 69:1419-25.
  34. Delima AJ, Oates T, Assuma R. Soluble antagonists to IL I and TNF inhibits loss of tissue attachment in experimental periodontitis, J Clin Periodontol 2001;28233-40.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.