Journal of Scientific Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 1 ( January-December, 2015 ) > List of Articles


Determinants of Malignant Transformation of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders – Covering The Gaps

Santosh Palla, Vishwanath Rangdhol, Jeelani S, Vandana S

Keywords : Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs), Malignant Transformation (MT), Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)

Citation Information : Palla S, Rangdhol V, S J, S V. Determinants of Malignant Transformation of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders – Covering The Gaps. 2015; 5 (1):36-45.

DOI: 10.5005/jsd-5-1-36

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-08-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; The Author(s).


Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) are heterogonous group of lesions and conditions which are warned for future occurrence of oral cancer (mostly oral squamous cell carcinoma OSCC). Habits like tobacco or beetle quid chewing, smoking were considered to be the only important aetiologies of PMDs and OSCC. However, considering the updated reports of oral cancers, evidence exits on its occurrence in absence of any habit history or in normal sites as explained by concepts of field cancerization. This alarms for understanding all possible reasons which may determine the nature of a lesion or factors that are associated with malignant transformation to oral cancer. This review shall cover all possible factors that determine the malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders so that a clinician can understand and judge upon on the progress of potentially malignant conditions to oral cancer just by examining the lesion and co-relating with the listed “Determinants of malignant transformation” for PMDs and OSCC.

PDF Share
  1. Garcia M, Jemal A, Ward EM, Center MM, Hao Y, Siegel RL, Thun MJ (ed.'s). Global Cancer Facts & Figures 2007. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2007.
  2. Olshan FA (ed.). Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Prevention of Head and Neck Cancer. London, Springer, 2010.
  3. Fedele S. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer. Head Neck Oncol. 2009;1(1):5.
  4. Andre K, Schraub S, Mercier M, Bontemps P. Role of alcohol and tobacco in the aetiology of head and neck cancer: A case-control study in the Doubs region of France. Oral On-col, Eur J Cancer 1995;31B(5):301-309.
  5. Amagasa T, Yamashiro M, Uzawa N. Oral premalignant lesions from a clinical prospective. Int Clin Oncol 2011;16(1)5-14.
  6. Mortazavi H, Mehdipour M, others. Oral potentially malignant disorders: an overview of more than 20 entities. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2014;8(1).
  7. J.J. Sciubba.oral leukoplakia. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1995;6(2):147-160
  8. Schwimmer E. Die idiopathischen Schleimhautplaques der Mundhöhle (Leukoplakia buccalis). Arch Dermat Syph 1877;9:570-611.
  9. Silverman S Jr, Gorsky M, Lozada F. Oral leukoplakia and malignant transformation: a follow-up study of 257 patients. Cancer 1984;53:563-8
  10. Ho, M. W., Risk J M, Woolgar J, Field E A, Field J A, Steele J C, Rajlawat P B, et al. “The Clinical Determinants of Malignant Transformation in proh.” Oral Oncology 2012;48(10): 969–76.
  11. Napier S S, Speight P M, Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature, J Oral Pathol Med 2008;37:1–10.
  12. Scully C, Bagan J V, Hopper C, Epstein J B, and others.“Oral Cancer: Current and Future Diagnostic Techniques.” Am J Dent 2008;21(4):199–209.
  13. George A, Sunil S, Varghese SS, Thomas J, Gopakumar D. Potentially malignant disorders of oral cavity 2011;2(1):95–100.
  14. Kaugars GE, Burns JC, Gunsolley JC. Epithelial dysplasia of the oral cavity and lips. Cancer 1988;62:2166-70.
  15. Mincer HH, Coleman SA, Hopkins KP. Observations on the clinical characteristics of oral lesions showing histologic epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972;33:389-99.
  16. Gupta PC, Sinor PN, Bhonsle RB, Pawar VS, Mehta HC. Oral submucous fibrosis in India: a new epidermic. Natl Med J India 1998;11:113–6.
  17. Schwartz RA, Birnkrant AP, Rubenstein DJ, Kim U, Burgess GH, Stoll HL Jr., et al.. Squamous cell carcinoma in dominant type epidermolysisbullosadystrophica. Cancer 1981;47:615-620.
  18. Extermann M, Movsas B, Introduction: Cancer, Ageing and Comorbidities’, J Rad Oncol 2012;22(4)263 – 264.
  19. Campisi J., 2003 ‘Cancer and ageing: rival demons?’ Nat. Rev. Cancer, May 2003; 3(5);339-49.
  20. Browner I, ‘Applications in Geriatric Oncology’, Geriatric Education Center Consortium Lecture Series, John Hopkins University, 21 March 2014.
  21. Mokni M, Rybojad M, Puppin D, Catala S, Venezia F, Djian R, Morel P. Lichen planus and hepatitis C virus. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 24: 792
  22. Schwartz RA, Birnkrant AP, Rubenstein DJ, Kim U, Burgess GH, Stoll HL Jr., et al.. Squamous cell carcinoma in dominant type epidermolysisbullosadystrophica. Cancer 1981;47:615-620.
  23. Gasparini G, Longobardi G, Boniello R, Di Petrillo A, Pelo S. Fanconi anemia manifesting as a squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate: a case report. Head Face Med. 2006;2(1):1-4.
  24. Smith E M., Ritchie J M, Summersgill K F, Klussmann J P, Lee J H, Wang D, Haugen T H, Turek L P. “Age, Sexual Behavior and Human Papillomavirus Infection in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers.” International Journal of Cancer 2004;108(5)123-6.
  25. Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CR, Bouquot JE. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2002.
  26. Mathew A, Pai K, Sholapurkar A, Vengal M. “The Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patients Visiting a Dental School in Southern India.” Indian Journal of Dental Research 2008;19(2):99–103.
  27. Sharan RN, Mehrotra R, Choudhury Y, Asotra K. Association of betel nut with carcinogenesis: revisit with a clinical perspective. PloS One. 2012;7(8):e42759.
  28. Shah N, Sharma PP. Role of chewing and smoking habits in the etiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF): a case-control study. J Oral Pathol Med Off Publ Int Assoc Oral Pathol Am Acad Oral Pathol. 1998;27(10):475–9.
  29. Larsson PA, Johansson SL, Vahlne A, Hirsch JM: Snuff tumorigenesis: effects of long-term snuff administration after initiation with 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and herpes simplex virus type 1. J Oral Pathol Med 18:187-92, 1989.
  30. Gavarasana S, Susarla MD. Palatal mucosal changes among reverse smokers in an Indian village. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1989;80(3):209.
  31. Pindborg, J. J., F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, D. K. Daftary, and C. J. Smith. “Reverse Smoking in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Study of Palatal Lesions among 10,169 Villagers.” British Journal of Cancer 1071;25(1):10.
  32. Wood, N H, Khammissa R, Meyerov R, Lemmer J, Feller L. “Actinic Cheilitis: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature.” European Journal of Dentistry 2011;5(1):101.
  33. Ogden GR, Connor E, Chisholm. Dyskeratoiscongenita: report of a case and review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1988;65:586-91.
  34. Gómez, G A, Martínez A E, Gómez R J, Silva M Y, María A, Núñez G, Agudelo A G, Duque A A, Castaño A Z, Echeverri E. “Reverse Smokers's and Changes in Oral Mucosa. Department of Sucre, Colombia.” Life 2008;10(1):4.
  35. Slaughter D, Southwick H, Smejkal W. “Field cancerization” in oral stratifide squamous epithelium: Clinical implications of multicentric origin. Cancer 1953;6:963-968.
  36. Rajendran, R. Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology. Edn 7; Elsevier India, 2009.
  37. Fareed M, Afzal M, Siddique Y H. “Micronucleus Investigation in Buccal Mucosal Cells among Pan Masala/gutkha Chewers and Its Relevance for Oral Cancer.” Biol Med 2011;3:8–15.
  38. Ravi M, Pandya S, Chaudhary A, Kumar M, Singh M. “Prevalence of Oral Pre-Malignant and Malignant Lesions at a Tertiary Level Hospital in Allahabad, India.” Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2008;9(2):263–65.
  39. Leeuwen M V, Grulich AE, McDonald SP, McCredie MR, Amin J, Stewart JH, Webster AC, Chapman JR, Vajdic CM. Immunosuppression and other risk factors for lip cancer after kidney transplantation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009,18:(56):1–9.
  40. Öhman J, Rexius H, Mjörnstedt L, Gonzalez H, Holmberg E, Dellgren G, Hasséus B. “Oral and Lip Cancer in Solid Organ Transplant Patients – A Cohort Study from a Swedish Transplant Centre.” Oral Oncology 2015;51(2)146–50.
  41. Markopoulos A, Albanidou-Farmaki E, Kayavis I. Actinic chelitis: clinical and pathologic characteristics in 65 cases. Oral Dis 2004;10:212-216.
  42. Bickers DR. Photosensitivity and other reactants to light. In: Kasper DL et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16thed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005:324-329.
  43. Bokor-Bratiæ, Marija, Nada Vuèkoviæ, and Siniša Mirkoviæ. “Correlation between Clinical and Histopathologic Diagnoses of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions.” Archive of Oncology 2004;12(3):145–47.
  44. Reibel J, Prognosis of Oral Pre-Malignant Lesions: Significance of Clinical, Histopathological and Molecular Biological Characteristics, Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003;14(1):47-62.
  45. Holland N, Bolognesi C, Kirschvolders M, Bonassi S, Zeiger E, Knasmueller S, et al. The micronucleus assay in human buccal cells as a tool for biomonitoring DNA damage: The HUMN project perspective on current status and knowledge gaps. Mutat Res Mutat Res. 2008;659(1-2):93–108.
  46. Neville BW, Day TA. Oral cancer and precancerous lesions. CA Cancer J Clin 2002;52:195-215.
  47. Ho P S, Chen P L, Warnakulasuriya S, Shieh T Y, Chen Y K, Huang I Y. Malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders in males: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2009;9(1):260.
  48. Wang Y Y, Tail H Y, Wang W C, Chen C Y, Kao Y H, Chen Y K, Chen C H. “Malignant Transformation in 5071 Southern Taiwanese Patients with Potentially Malignant Oral Mucosal Disorders.” BMC Oral Health 2009;14(1):99.
  49. Warnakulasuriya S, Johnson NW, Waal I Van Der. Nomenclature and classification of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. J Oral Pathol Med 2007;36:575–80.
  50. J. Bagan, C. Scully, Y. Jimenez, and M. Martorell, “Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a concise update,” Oral Diseases 2012;16(4):328–332.
  51. Waal I Van Der, Johnson NW “Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management,” Oral Oncology 2009;45(4): 317–323.
  52. Villa AC, and Abati S. “Oral Cancer and Oral Erythroplakia: An Update and Implication for Clinicians: Oral Cancer and Oral Erythroplakia.” Australian Dental Journal 2011; 56(3):253–56.
  53. Bakri MM, Hussaini HM, Holmes AR, Cannon RD. Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Microbiol. 2010;2(1): 5780.
  54. Bouquot JE, Speight PM, Farthing PM. Epithelial dysplasia of the oral mucosa—Diagnostic problems and prognostic features. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2006;12(1):11–21.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.