Periodontitis is a highly complex and multifactorial disease. In recent years, researchers began to focus on bacterial-host interactions. It had been recognized that though the bacteria present in plaque initiates the periodontal inflammation, the host response to these pathogens equally matters in the progression of the disease. Therefore, the severity of this disease is due to a variety of factors, including the presence of periodontopathic bacteria, high levels of proinflammatory mediators and low levels of antiinflammatory mediators. However, the immune response initiated by periodontal disease seems to be much broader. This review attempts to enlighten the various immune mechanisms involved in periodontal disease initiation and progression.
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